Rabu, 27 Mei 2009


Noun phrase
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents
1 Form
2 Grammatical unit
3 Grammatical function
4 See also
5 References

In grammar, a noun phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase whose head is a noun or a pronoun, optionally accompanied by a set of modifiers.[1]

Noun phrases are very common cross-linguistically, but some languages like Tuscarora and Cayuga have been argued[who?] to lack this category.


Noun phrases normally consist of a head noun, which is optionally modified ("premodified" If the modifier is placed before the noun; "postmodified" if the modifier is placed after the noun). Possible modifiers include:
determiners: articles (the, a), demonstratives (this, that), numerals (two, five, etc.), possessives (my, their, etc.), and quantifiers (some, many, etc.). In English, determiners are usually placed before the noun;
adjectives (the red ball); or
complements, in the form of a prepositional phrase (such as: the student of physics), or a That-clause (the claim that the earth is round);
modifiers; pre-modifiers if placed before the noun and usually either as nouns (the university student) or adjectives (the beautiful lady), or post-modifiers if placed after the noun. A postmodifier may be either a prepositional phrase (the man with long hair) or a relative clause (the house where I live). The difference between modifiers and complements is that complements complete the meaning of the noun; complements are necessary, whereas modifiers are optional because they just give additional information about the noun.

Noun phrases can make use of an apposition structure. This means that the elements in the noun phrase are not in a head-modifier relationship, but in a relation of equality. An example of this is I, Caesar, declare ..., where "Caesar" and "I" do not modify each other.

The head of a noun phrase can be implied, as in "The Bold and the Beautiful" or Robin Hood's "rob from the rich and give to the poor"; an implied noun phrase is most commonly used as a generic plural referring to human beings.[2]

That noun phrases can be headed by elements other than nouns — for instance, pronouns (They came) or determiners ((I'll take these)) — has given rise to the postulation of a determiner phrase instead of a noun phrase. The English language is not as permissive as some other languages, with regard to possible heads of noun phrases. German, for instance, allows adjectives as heads of noun phrases[citation needed], as in Gib mir die alten for Give me the olds (i.e. old ones).

Grammatical unit

In English, for some purposes, noun phrases can be treated as single grammatical units. This is most noticeable in the syntax of the English genitive case. In a phrase such as The king of Sparta's wife, the possessive clitic "-'s" is not added to the king who actually has the wife, but instead to Sparta, as the end of the whole phrase. The clitic modifies the entire phrase the king of Sparta.

Grammatical function

Noun phrases are prototypically used for acts of reference as in "The blonde girl shouts" or "She kissed the man". Also possible, but found less often, is the use of noun phrases for predication, as in "Suzy is a blonde girl". Note that in English the use of the copula is indicates the use of a noun phrase as predicate, but other languages may not require the use of the copula. Finally, noun phrases are used for identifications like "The murderer was the butler", where no ascription is taking place. The possibility for a noun phrase to play the role of subject and predicate leads to the constructions of syllogisms.

Rabu, 20 Mei 2009


The basic purpose of narrative is to entertain, to gain and hold a readers' interest. However narratives can also be written to teach or inform, to change attitudes / social opinions eg soap operas and television dramas that are used to raise topical issues. Narratives sequence people/characters in time and place but differ from recounts in that through the sequencing, the stories set up one or more problems, which must eventually find a way to be resolved. 

Types of Narrative 

There are many types of narrative. They can be imaginary, factual or a combination of both. They may include fairy stories, mysteries, science fiction, romances, horror stories, adventure stories, fables, myths and legends, historical narratives, ballads, slice of life, personal experience. 


Characters with defined personalities/identities. 
Dialogue often included - tense may change to the present or the future. 
Descriptive language to create images in the reader's mind and enhance the story. 


In a Traditional Narrative the focus of the text is on a series of actions: 

Orientation: (introduction) in which the characters, setting and time of the story are established. Usually answers who? when? where? eg. Mr Wolf went out hunting in the forest one dark gloomy night. 

Complication or problem: The complication usually involves the main character(s) (often mirroring the complications in real life). 

Resolution: There needs to be a resolution of the complication. The complication may be resolved for better or worse/happily or unhappily. Sometimes there are a number of complications that have to be resolved. These add and sustain interest and suspense for the reader. 

To help students plan for writing of narratives, model, focusing on: 
Plot: What is going to happen? 
Setting: Where will the story take place? When will the story take place? 
Characterisation: Who are the main characters? What do they look like? 
Structure: How will the story begin? What will be the problem? How is the problem going to be resolved? 
Theme: What is the theme / message the writer is attempting to communicate? 

Action verbs: Action verbs provide interest to the writing. For example, instead of The old woman was in his way try The old woman barred his path. Instead of She laughed try She cackled. 
Written in the first person (I, we) or the third person (he, she, they). 
Usually past tense. 
Connectives,linking words to do with time. 
Specific nouns: Strong nouns have more specific meanings, eg. oak as opposed to tree. 
Active nouns: Make nouns actually do something, eg. It was raining could become Rain splashed down or There was a large cabinet in the lounge could become A large cabinet seemed to fill the lounge. 
Careful use of adjectives and adverbs: Writing needs judicious use of adjectives and adverbs to bring it alive, qualify the action and provide description and information for the reader. 
Use of the senses: Where appropriate, the senses can be used to describe and develop the experiences, setting and character: 
What does it smell like? 
What can be heard? 
What can be seen - details? 
What does it taste like? 
What does it feel like? 

Simile: A direct comparison, using like or as or as though, eg. The sea looked as rumpled as a blue quilted dressing gown. Or The wind wrapped me up like a cloak. 
Metaphor: An indirect or hidden comparison, eg. She has a heart of stone or He is a stubborn mule or The man barked out the instructions. 
Onomatopoeia: A suggestion of sound through words, eg. crackle, splat, ooze, squish, boom, eg. The tyres whir on the road. The pitter-patter of soft rain. The mud oozed and squished through my toes. 
Personification: Giving nonliving things (inanimate) living characteristics, eg. The steel beam clenched its muscles. Clouds limped across the sky. The pebbles on the path were grey with grief. 

Rhetorical Questions: Often the author asks the audience questions, knowing of course there will be no direct answer. This is a way of involving the reader in the story at the outset, eg. Have you ever built a tree hut? 

Variety in sentence beginnings. There are a several ways to do this eg by using: 

Participles: "Jumping with joy I ran home to tell mum my good news." 
Adverbs: "Silently the cat crept toward the bird" 
Adjectives: "Brilliant sunlight shone through the window" 
Nouns: "Thunder claps filled the air" 
Adverbial Phrases: "Along the street walked the girl as if she had not a care in the world." 
Conversations/Dialogue: these may be used as an opener. This may be done through a series of short or one-word sentences or as one long complex sentence. 

Show, Don't Tell: Students have heard the rule "show, don't tell" but this principle is often difficult for some writers to master. 

Personal Voice: It may be described as writing which is honest and convincing. The author is able to 'put the reader there'. The writer invests something of him/her self in the writing. The writing makes an impact on the reader. It reaches out and touches the reader. A connection is made. 

Teacher Resources 

Dick King Smith English Online unit 
Tales of the Grimm Brothers English Online unit 
Teddybears English Online unit 
Ahoy! Matey English Online unit 
Fairy Tales English Online unit 
Fools and Tricksters in Literature English Online unit 
Margaret Mahy Author English Online unit 
Myths and Legends English Online unit 
What a Character English Online unit 
Who? What? When? Where? English Online unit 
The Haunted House English Online unit 
A Toy Story English Online unit 
Writers @ Work English Online unit 
Fab-Fiction: Close Reading English Online unit 
asTTle What Next 
Exemplar - Poetic Writing: Character
Hyperfiction: Its Possibilities in English
Hyperfiction Webquest

Ministry of Education. The Learner as a Reader NZ: Learning Media.
Some features of narrative texts page 98 - 106. 
Hood, H. Left to Write Too (2000) Dunmore Press.
Shared Writing - narrative page 57,58. 
Wing Jan, L. Write Ways: Modelling Writing Forms. (1991). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Narrative Information page 71
Fiction Writing page 86 - 95 
Derewianka, B. Exploring How Texts Work. (1990). Sydney: Primary Teaching Association.
Exploring Narratives page 34-46 
Knapp, P. & Watkins, M. Context-Text-Grammar (1994) Text Productions.
The basic structure of narratives page 140
The grammatical features of narrating page 145